Thursday, 9 July 2015

viruse

Infectious Disease Serology



Introduction


Diagnostic and immune status serologic assays are performed for various viral, rickettsial, bacterial, fungal, chlamydial and mycoplasmal agents. The assay methods vary depending upon the specific agent for which testing is requested. For specific agents and assay methods refer to Chart V - 1 SEROLOGICAL TESTS AVAILABLE FROM TDH LABORATORY.
Serological testing for infectious agents that are not performed by the Tennessee Department of Health (TDH) Laboratory may be available at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Consult with the appropriate section at the Nashville laboratory before submitting specimens for testing. According to CDC's guidelines, all specimens submitted to the CDC must come through the state laboratory or receive the state laboratory's approval for direct shipment from the provider to the CDC.

Specimen Acceptance Policy

HIV-1
 Serological testing for HIV-1 is available only in support of counseling and testing sites established by the TDH Sexually Transmitted Diseases/HIV (STD/HIV) Control Program.
Other agents -- serological testing is available to all public and private health care providers.
Type of Specimen Required
Immunity Screening
 Immunity screening for rubella is intended for prenatal and family planning patients. Immunity screening for measles and mumps is not routinely available. Arrangements may be made with the TDH Laboratory to perform this screening on a case-by-case basis. A single, whole clotted blood or serum is required for rubella, measles, or mumps immunity screening.
Diagnostic Testing
As a rule, acute and convalescent sera must be submitted for serological testing. The acute serum should be collected as soon after the onset of illness as possible. For the majority of the serological testing offered by the TDH Laboratory, the convalescent serum should be collected 14 days from the time the acute specimen was collected. In most cases, the laboratory requests that the acute and convalescent sera be submitted at the same time. For those agents for which IgM is available, submit the acute specimen when it is collected. See Chart V - 1 SEROLOGICAL TESTS AVAILABLE FROM THE TDH LABORATORY.

 Infectious Disease Serology (Continued)

Chart V - 1
Serological Tests Available from the TDH Laboratory
Testing for infectious agents not listed in this chart may be available at the CDC.

Consult with the TDH Laboratory concerning testing not listed. Agent or Disease Suspected
Specimen Needed
Test Method
Normal Reference Range1
Turn Around Time (days)2
Eastern Equine encephalitis virus
Acute and convalescent(14 days) sera
IFA IgG
IFA IgM
<1:16
<1:16
5
5
Ehrlichia chaffeensis

Acute and convalescent(28 days) sera
IFA, IgG
<1:128
5
Human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1)3
Whole, clotted blood or serum
Screening - EIA
Confirmation - WB
Non-Reactive
Non-Reactive
7
7
LaCrosse (California encephalitis group) virus
Acute and convalescent(14 days) sera
IFA IgG
IFA IgM
<1:16
<1:16
5
5
Legionella pneumoniae (Type 1-specific)
Acute and convalescent(28 days) sera
IFA, IgG
<1:128
5
Measles virus4 (Rubeola)
Immunity Screening -- Whole clotted blood or serum
EIA (IgG)
Positive (Immune)
5
Measles virus (Rubeola)4
Diagnostic -- Acute and convalescent (14 days) sera
EIA (IgG)
EIA (IgM)
Negative
Negative
1
1
Mumps virus4
Immunity Screening -- Whole clotted blood or serum
EIA (IgG)
Positive
(Immune)
5
Mumps virus
Diagnostic -- Acute and convalescent (14 days) sera
EIA (IgG)
Negative
1
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Acute and convalescent(14 days) sera
EIA IgM
EIA IgG
Negative
Negative
5
5
Q Fever (Coxiella burnetii) Phases 1 and 2
Acute and convalescent(28 days) sera
IFA, IgG
<1:256
5
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (Rickettsia rickettsii)
Acute and convalescent(28 days) sera
IFA, IGG
<1:128
5
Rubella virus
Immunity Screening -- Whole clotted blood or serum
EIA (IgG)
Positive
(Immune)
5
Infectious Disease Serology (Continued)
Chart V - 1 (continued)

Blood

Infectious Disease Serology (Continued)
Specimen Collection
1. Collect an acute serum as soon after the onset of the illness as possible. A convalescent serum should be collected 14 days after the collection of the acute serum. Exceptions to this general rule of collection of specimens are noted in Chart V - 1 SEROLOGICAL TESTS AVAILABLE FROM TDH LABORATORY
2. Draw at least 5 to 7 ml of blood into a red-top vacuum tube allowing the tube to fill completely. Allow the tube to stand at room temperature to ensure complete clotting of blood. Blood should not be taken for 1 hour after a meal to avoid chylous serum.
3. Store the specimen in a refrigerator until it is sent to the laboratory. If a sample of serum is to be sent to the laboratory, separate the serum from the blood clot by centrifuging the whole clotted blood at 1,500 to 2,000 rpm at room temperature for 10 minutes. Pipette the serum into a new red-top vacuum tube or a sterile plastic screw-capped vial. A minimum of 1 ml of serum should be sent to the laboratory for testing.
Serum-separating tubes may be used to collect the specimens for serological testing. These specimens should be sent to arrive in the testing laboratory within 48 to 72 hours of collection to avoid having the red blood cells hemolyze and "spill" into the upper portion of the tube.
4. Acute serum that is held until the collection of a convalescent serum should be separated from the blood clot and stored frozen until collection of the convalescent serum. Acute serum will not be tested routinely unless the TDH Laboratory offers testing for the IgM class of antibody for the analytic testing requested. Convalescent specimens may be run as stand alone specimens in limited situations. Consultation with the supervisor of the Serology Unit is required before the convalescent serum will be tested singly.
Spinal Fluid
Prior arrangement must be made with the TDH Laboratory before cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens are submitted for serologic testing. The VDRL test for syphilis is routinely performed on CSF. The EIA test for West Nile Virus (WNV) IgM is performed on CSF seasonally.
Specimen Identification
1. Use the appropriate form for the test requested: Rubella
Rubella Form PH-1917
HIV-1
HIV-1 Serology Form PH-3173
Other non-syphilis serology
Immunoserology Form PH-1589


Infectious Disease Serology (Continued)
2. Using indelible ink, label each specimen with the patient's first and last name and the date of collection. Attach the tear strip number from the test request form to the specimen and secure it with transparent tape. Those providers submitting electronic test requests should affix a label produced by Laboratory Order Entry (LOE) to the associated specimen. Unlabeled specimens or specimens containing information that does not exactly match the information on the accompanying test request form or electronic record will not be tested.
Shipment of Specimens
1. Packing and shipping specimens to the state public health laboratory requires personnel trained in current regulations. Follow the shipping guidelines of your current carrier or shipping method.
2. Affix the mailing label (PH-0838), return address and other labeling required by pertinent regulations to the outer container.
1.     Ship to the Tennessee Department of Health Laboratory Services.





Syphilis Serology


Introduction
Syphilis is a disease caused by infection with the spirochete Treponema pallidum. Serological tests greatly aid in the diagnosis of syphilis. Serologic assays used to screen patients for syphilis are non-treponemal tests. The non-treponemal test performed by the Tennessee Department of Health (TDH) Laboratory is the Rapid Plasma Reagin test (RPR). Quantitative RPR results may be used to monitor therapy for T. pallidum infections.
Confirmation of reactive RPR screening test results is obtained with specific treponemal tests for syphilis. The Treponema pallidum-Particle Agglutination test (TP-PA) is the TDH Laboratory's primary confirmatory test for T. pallidum-specific antibody. Suspected biologically false-positive results sometimes produced in the RPR test may be investigated with a TP-PA test. The Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody-Absorption-Double Stain Test (FTA-ABS-DS) also detects T. pallidum-specific antibody. It is available in limited circumstances. The TP-PA and FTA-ABS-DS are not screening procedures and are only performed when required for proper patient management.
The Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test is a non-treponemal test used to test cerebrospinal fluids (CSF). Positive test results are quantitated to aid in monitoring therapy for neurosyphilis. The RPR, TP-PA and FTA-ABS-DS tests are not performed on CSF.
Specimen Acceptance Policy
The TDH Laboratory performs serological procedures for syphilis in support of:
                The state prenatal law.
                The TDH Sexually Transmitted Disease Control Program.
                The private medical community for which the state laboratories serve as reference laboratories.
                Other State agencies for which the TDH Laboratory has contracted or agreed to perform tests.

Testing for syphilis, non-treponemal and treponemal-specific, is available to all health care providers.
Tennessee does not require premarital testing for syphilis.
Syphilis screening tests will be performed for persons who intend to be married in a state requiring premarital syphilis testing. The TDH Laboratory will send appropriate premarital forms for the state in which the wedding will be performed with the results of the laboratory tests. Other states may not accept premarital syphilis testing performed by laboratories other than state public heath laboratories such as the TDH Laboratory.
Type of Specimen Required

For the tests performed at the TDH Laboratory, the specimen required and the application of the test refer to Chart V - 2 SEROLOGICAL TESTS FOR SYPHILIS. 

Tuesday, 7 July 2015

Monday, 6 July 2015

Genetics

 The early development of genetics

For the first 30 years of its life this new science grew at an astonishing rate. The idea
that genes reside on chromosomes was proposed by W. Sutton in 1903, and received
experimental backing from T.H. Morgan in 1910. Morgan and his colleagues then
developed the techniques for gene mapping, and by 1922 had produced a comprehensive
analysis of the relative positions of over 2000 genes on the 4 chromosomes of the
fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster.
Despite the brilliance of these classical genetic studies, there was no real understanding
of the molecular nature of the gene until the 1940s. Indeed, it was not until
Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis: An Introduction. 6th edition. By T.A. Brown. Published 2010 by
Blackwell Publishing.
the experiments of Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty in 1944, and of Hershey and Chase
in 1952, that anyone believed that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material:
up until then it was widely thought that genes were made of protein. The discovery
of the role of DNA was a tremendous stimulus to genetic research, and many famous
biologists (Delbrück, Chargaff, Crick, and Monod were among the most influential)
contributed to the second great age of genetics. In the 14 years between 1952 and 1966,
the structure of DNA was elucidated, the genetic code cracked, and the processes of

transcription and translation described.

The advent of gene cloning and the polymerase

chain reaction

These years of activity and discovery were followed by a lull, a period of anticlimax
when it seemed to some molecular biologists (as the new generation of geneticists styled
themselves) that there was little of fundamental importance that was not understood.
In truth there was a frustration that the experimental techniques of the late 1960s were
not sophisticated enough to allow the gene to be studied in any greater detail.
Then in the years 1971–1973 genetic research was thrown back into gear by what at
the time was described as a revolution in experimental biology. A whole new methodology
was developed, enabling previously impossible experiments to be planned and
carried out, if not with ease, then at least with success. These methods, referred to as
recombinant DNA technology or genetic engineering, and having at their core the process
of gene cloning, sparked another great age of genetics. They led to rapid and
efficient DNA sequencing techniques that enabled the structures of individual genes to
be determined, reaching a culmination at the turn of the century with the massive
genome sequencing projects, including the human project which was completed in 2000.
They led to procedures for studying the regulation of individual genes, which have
allowed molecular biologists to understand how aberrations in gene activity can result
in human diseases such as cancer. The techniques spawned modern biotechnology,
which puts genes to work in production of proteins and other compounds needed in
medicine and industrial processes.
During the 1980s, when the excitement engendered by the gene cloning revolution
was at its height, it hardly seemed possible that another, equally novel and equally
revolutionary process was just around the corner. According to DNA folklore, Kary
Mullis invented the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) during a drive along the coast
of California one evening in 1985. His brainwave was an exquisitely simple technique
that acts as a perfect complement to gene cloning. PCR has made easier many of the
techniques that were possible but difficult to carry out when gene cloning was used on
its own. It has extended the range of DNA analysis and enabled molecular biology to find
new applications in areas of endeavor outside of its traditional range of medicine, agriculture,
and biotechnology. Archaeogenetics, molecular ecology, and DNA forensics
are just three of the new disciplines that have become possible as a direct consequence
of the invention of PCR, enabling molecular biologists to ask questions about human
evolution and the impact of environmental change on the biosphere, and to bring their
powerful tools to bear in the fight against crime. Forty years have passed since the dawning
of the age of gene cloning, but we are still riding the rollercoaster and there is no
end to the excitement in sight.

Bio fertilizers vs Chemical fertilizers

Advantages Of Organic Fertilizer


    Better for the soil: provides organic matter essential for microorganisms. It is one of the building blocks for fertile soil rich in humus.
    Nutrient release: slow and consistent at a natural rate that plants are able to use. No danger of over concentration of any element, since microbes must break down the material.
    Trace minerals: typically present in a broad range, providing more balanced nutrition to the plant.
    Won’t burn: safe for all plants with no danger of burning due to salt concentration.
    Long lasting: doesn’t leach out since the organic matter binds to the soil particles where the roots have access to it.
    Fewer applications required: once a healthy soil condition is reached, it is easier to maintain that level with less work.
    Controlled growth: does not over-stimulate to exceptional growth which can cause problems and require more work.
    Stronger plants and grass: greater resistance to disease and insect attacks.
    Beneficial to environment. Won’t build up harmful residues or cause pollution due to run-off from irrigation or rain.
    Encourages soil life. Microbes convert the organic matter to the form of nutrients that plants need. Earthworms feeding on organic materials aerate and loosen the soil.
    Specific formulas: adapt to any application by changing the ingredient blend. Pre- blended formulas or individual items allow flexibility for plant preferences or needs.

Advantages of Chemical Fertilizer


    Readily available: as the most common form used, it is found everywhere.
    Formula variety: it is easy for chemical companies to vary the elements to produce blends for different seasons and for specific plants.
    Fast acting. Usually see results within 1-2 weeks if the formula used is appropriate for the season.
    Inexpensive: typically, except for the better quality blends that have controlled release pellets.
    Ease of application: using fertilizer spreaders. Rates and settings are usually calculated and displayed on bag.
    Multiple forms: available in pellets, granules, liquid, tablets, spikes, and slow-release, to suit every preference.


Second Category In The Organic vs. Non Organic Fertilizer Saga: Disadvantages

Disadvantages of Organic Fertilizers


    Slow to release nutrients. Cooler soil temperatures are not as conducive to the release of elements.
    Dependent on microorganisms in the soil to break down organic material. Soils depleted of these beneficial microbes further delay the results from organics.
    More expensive than chemical fertilizer applied to equal square footage. Some retailers do not offer larger size bags that would make it more economical.
    Application less convenient in some forms. Meal form, unlike pellets, is difficult to apply on large areas like lawns.
    Residue in liquid forms: some, like fish concentrate, may not be finely strained, and clogging of sprayers can occur.
    Pets may be attracted to certain natural fertilizers. Dogs may want to roll in it, dig, or get into the bag, especially with blood meal or bone meal.
    Limited availability in some areas. All of the blends may not be offered, or the choice of individual ingredients may be limited, depending on locale.
    Can attract bugs in storage if not protected in sealed containers (not paper bags).
    Animal manures that are not fully composted can cause problems when used directly as fresh fertilizer. Homemade natural fertilizers are not automatically a good idea.

Disadvantages Of Chemical Fertilizers


    Water soluble in most forms. Since water releases the nutrients, it is not uncommon to lose one-third of the nutrients by leaching out of the soil before the plant can access them.
    Short life span, unless using a controlled release form.
    Doesn’t build up the soil. The basic synthetic elements contribute nothing to enhance soil fertility.
    May decrease soil fertility. Chemical nitrogen stimulates the growth of existing microorganisms, which then use up organic matter in the soil. Repeating this cycle regularly leaves soil depleted.
    Excess growth can occur with some varieties or with surplus application. This results in more mowing or pruning, places stress on roots, causes heavier grass stains on clothes from lawns.
    Danger with incorrect application. Potential of harm from excess, especially lawns getting coverage overlap.
    Salt burn risk. Synthetic fertilizer is salt. Over-concentration can cause dehydration and plant tissue is destroyed.
    Trace nutrients missing, in many synthetic blends. Excess of major nutrients can bind up other nutrients in the soil, making them unavailable to the plant.
    Environmental problems occur with chemical run-off.
    Excess phosphorous can collect in the soil and cause pollution problems.
    Nitrogen is volatile: is lost easily into the atmosphere when fertilizer is left on the ground and not watered into the soil. It is also lost from bags in storage, if not sealed properly.
    Absorbs moisture easily in storage. This results in caking, or hard fertilizer, which is difficult or impossible to use.
    Iron stains. When added to formula, it is water soluble and can leave rust stains on concrete if not handled correctly.
    High energy consumption required to produce these products.

Sunday, 5 July 2015

Bio fuel technology

Introduction

      In this  world the energy source is rapidly declining. Most of industries depends fossil. mainly coal, natural gas and oil. 

      But this type of source are rapidly declining so the biotechnologist choose the energy source from the micro organisms.


      This type of energy  come from bio mass by the fermentation process.This type of energy production is more economic advantages and no harmful for environment .

       In this production mostly at the rural areas depends for the bio mass.

Saturday, 4 July 2015

Microorganisms

Micro Organisms

       

Microorganisms are very smallest living thing.
They are present any where, Universal presents.
They are three types depends upon the cellular.
                  Uni cellular
                  Multi cellular
                  Non-cellular
 They are 
                  Bacteria 
                  Virus
                  Algae
                  Plants
                  Animals
                  Protozoa
                  Archea

 

Bacteria

              The word bacteria is the plural of the New Latin bacterium, which is the latinisation of the Greek βακτήριον (bakterion), the diminutive of βακτηρία (bakteria), meaning "staff, cane",because the first ones to be discovered were rod-shaped.
              Bacteria display a wide diversity of shapes and sizes, called morphologies.
     Bacterial cells are about one-tenth the size of eukaryotic cells and are typically 0.5–5.0 micrometres in
     E. fishelsoni reaches 0.7 mm. Among the smallest bacteria are members of the genus Mycoplasma, which measure only 0.3 micrometres, as small as the largest viruses.
     Some bacteria may be even smaller, but these ultramicrobacteria are not well-studied.

    Most bacterial species are either spherical, called cocci (sing. coccus, from Greek kókkos, grain, seed), or rod-shaped, called bacilli (sing. bacillus, from Latin baculus, stick). Elongation is associated with swimming.     Some bacteria, called vibrio, are shaped like slightly curved rods or comma-shaped; others can be spiral-shaped, called spirilla, or tightly coiled, called spirochaetes. A small number of species even have tetrahedral or cuboidal shapes.
     More recently, bacteria were discovered deep under Earth's crust that grow as branching filamentous types with a star-shaped cross-section.
     The large surface area to volume ratio of this morphology may give these bacteria an advantage in nutrient-poor environments.
     This wide variety of shapes is determined by the bacterial cell wall and cytoskeleton, and is important because it can influence the ability of bacteria to acquire nutrients, attach to surfaces, swim through liquids and escape predators.
length. However, a few species — for example, Thiomargarita namibiensis and Epulopiscium fishelsoni — are up to half a millimetre long and are visible to the unaided eye.